Culinary French, A GlossaryThis is a featured page

blanc: "white;" cooked, but not browned

à la Alsacienne: in the manner of Alsace, usually refers to German-influenced braised meat and charcuterie dishes containing choucroute and/or potatoes

à la Américaine: seafood cooked with olive oil, onions, tomatoes and wine (typically, lobster)

à la ancienne: old style, usually refers to braised beef

à la Andalouse: in the manner of Andalusia, in southern Spain, usually refers to dishes containing red peppers, tomatoes and sausage or rice (e.g., sauce Andalouse, mayonnaise flavored and colored with tomatoes and red peppers)

à la Anglaise: English style, usually refers to poached or boiled dishes, but also fried foods (especially fish) that have been rolled in breadcrumbs

à la Argenteuil: applied to dishes containing asperge, asparagus

à la bonne femme: cooked in a simple, home-style manner; usually refers to poached fish, often sauced with lemon juice and white wine

à la Bordelaise: in the style of Bordeaux (e.g., sauce Bordelaise, reduced wine and stock, herbs, shallots, and a garnish of marrow)

à la broche: spit-roasted (en brochette, like shish kabob, cooked on a skewer)

à la carte: a style of meal selection in which the guests compose their own meals by selecting from the menu where each item is separately priced, or a menu of this type. (opposite of prix fixe)

à la clamart: applied to dishes garnished either with peas or with pea-sized potato balls

à la Conti: applied to dishes garnished with lentil purée, and, occasionally, with bacon

à la Crécy: applied to dishes garnished or prepared with carrots

à la diable: in the style of the devil, that is, spicy (sauce Espagnole, shallots, wine, vinegar and pepper--either black or cayenne)

à la Dubarry: applied to dishes garnished or prepared with cauliflower (e.g., créme Dubarry, purèe of cauliflower soup

à la Espagnole: in the style of Spain (refers to dishes containing garlic, onions, tomatoes and sweet red peppers)

à la Flamande: in the Flemish style (refers to braised dishes containing cabbage, carrots, potatoes and turnips)

à la Florentine: in the style of Florence (refers to dishes served on a bed of spinach)

à la Forestiére: of the forest (usually refers to dishes garnished with wild mushrooms)

à la Grecque: in the style of Greece (refers to cold appetizers cooked with lemon juice, olive oil and herbs--such as oregano and thyme)

à la impériatrice: as the empress likes it, sweetened or enriched with cream or custard (e.g., riz à la impériatrice, a rich rice pudding)

à la Indienne: in the Indian style, refers to dishes containing curry powder, accompanied by rice

à la Lyonnaise: in the style of Lyons, refers to dishes garnished with fried onions (e.g., sauce Lyonnaise, demi-glace and reduced white wine, flavored with sautèed onions)

à la Madrilène: in the style of Madrid, refers to dishes cooked with tomatoes (e.g., Madrilène, consommè colored and flavored with fresh tomato juice)

à la Marengo: a dish created, supposedly, for Napoleon after the battle of Marengo-- chicken or veal, browned in olive oil, then braised with garlic, olives, onions, tomatoes and wine (sometimes brandy)

à la marinière: in the style of mariners, refers to shellfish dishes made with herbs and white wine

à la meunière: in the style of the miller's wife, refers to dishes of fish lightly floured and sautéed in butter (e.g., beurre meunière, a simple sauce of beurre noisette, lemon and parsley)

à la Milanaise: in the style of Milan, pasta coated with butter and Parmesan cheese, then sauced with tomatoes, ham, mushrooms, tongue and truffles

à la minute: cooked at the moment, prepared to order

à la mode: in the manner of some person[s] or place (e.g., boeuf à la mode, beef, marinated in red wine, then braised; tripes à la mode de Caen, braised tripe dish from Normandy)

à la Montmorency: in the style of Montmorency, a suburb of Paris, refers to dishes made, or garnished, with sour cherries

à la Niçoise: in the style of Nice, refers to dishes made with anchovies, garlic, olives and tomatoes (e.g., salade Niçoise, salad dressed à la Niçoise, containing haricot vert, hard-boiled eggs, onions and tuna)

à la Normande: in the style of Normandy, refers to seafood dishes garnished with mushrooms, shellfish and truffles (e.g., sauce Normande, veloutè enriched with butter, cream and egg yolk)

à la os: on the bone

à la Périgourdine: in the style of Périgord, refers to dishes prepared or garnished with truffles

à la Polonaise: in the style of Poland, refers to dishes garnished with melted butter, browned breadcrumbs, chopped hard-boiled egg and mince parsley

à la Provençale: in the style of Provence, refers to dishes prepared with garlic, olive oil and tomatoes, and sometimes anchovies, olives and onions

à la Russe: Russian service, traditionally performed by setting an empty plate in front of each guest from their right side, then serving the food from platters from the guests' left side

à la serviette: served on a fancy folded napkin on china

à la zingara: in the style of the gypsies, refers to dishes garnished with chopped ham, mushrooms, tongue and truffles--flavored with Madeira, tarragon and tomato.

à point: perfectly cooked food (rare, when referring to steak)

abaisse: a thin layer of pastry, undercrust

abats: organ meats (other than poultry giblets); (also abattis, poultry giblets)

aboyeur: expediter, person who relays orders from front of the house to appropriate stations in the kitchen, then checks plates as they go out to dining room

abricot: apricot

acerbe: bitter; tart to the taste

affiné: matured (applied to cheese)

agneau: lamb

agrumes: citrus fruit

aiglefin: haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus

aïgo bouido: Provençal garlic soup served over pieces of bread (e.g., aïgo-sau d'iou, Provençal fish soup made with water and salt)

aigre: sour (e.g., aigre-doux, sweet-and-sour, or bitter-sweet; aigrir, to sour, as wine or milk)

ail: garlic (e.g., gousse d'ail, garlic clove; ail semoule, garlic ; aillè, flavoured with garlic)

aïoli: a Provençal garlic mayonnaise (served as part of the dish aïoli complet)

alevin: tiny fish of any species

alimentation: food (food, groceries, nourishment, nutrition)

allumette: matchstick; classic cut (one-eighth inch square, by one to two inches long), refers either to very thin fried potatoes or filled strips of puff pastry served as savory hors d'oeuvres

alose: a type of shad, smaller than a herring, Alosa fallax

amande: almond

amer: bitter (also acerbe) (e.g., amer picon, a vermouth-like digestif; amertume, bitterness)

Amoricaine: lobster butter added to tomato sauce (sometimes seen as Americaine)

amuse-gueule: cocktail snack (also amuse-bouche), a lagniappe given before the appetizer

ananas: pineapple

anchois: anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus (e.g., anchoiade, anchovy purèe, Provençal purée made with garlic and olive oil, also known as anchoyade)

andouillette: small unsmoked sausage from Normandy (not to be confused with the larger, spicier, smoked Cajun sausage, andouille)

aneth: dill, Anethum graveolens

angélique: angelica, Angelica offininalis

anguille: eel

anis étoilé: star anise (also badiane), Illicium verum

aperitif: to open, the first drink offered

appareil: a prepared mixture, used on its own or as an ingredient in another preparation

appellation: governmentally defined wine region of France

apron: perch-like fish from the Rhône river, Zingel asper

arôme: aroma, flavor (also aromate, aromatic plant; herb; spice)

arrosé: sprinkled, moistened or basted

artichaut: artichoke

asperge: asparagus (e.g., botte d'asperges, a bundle of asparagus; pointe d'asperges, asparagus tips)

aspic: clear meat jelly

assaisonné: seasoned or seasoned with

assiette: plate, dish

au gratin: refers to dishes topped with bread crumbs and/or grated cheese, and browned in the salamander or broiler

au jus: served with natural juices

au lait: served with milk, like coffee

au naturel: served raw or unmodified

au plateau: served on a platter

aubergine: eggplant (e.g., aubergine farcie, stuffed eggplant)

aurore: dawn; Bechamel sauce colored a rosy pink with tomato purèe

avocat: avocado

avoine: oats (e.g., flocon d'avoine, rolled oats; gruau d'avoine, oatmeal porridge)

badiane: star anise (also anis ètoilè), Illicium verum

badigeonner: to coat, (with egg white, for example)

baguette: a long slender bread weighing 250 grams; the classic French bread

bain marie: a water bath, used to cook foods gently, by protecting from direct heat, either on the stove or in the oven

ballotine: boned, stuffed, rolled, tied and roasted meat served hot (also ballottine)

banane: banana

Banon: goat cheese wrapped in chestnut leaves; from Banon, in Provence

bar: seabass (also known as loup de mer), Dicentrarchus punctatus

barbe-papa: cotton candy

barbouillade: stuffed eggplant or eggplant stew from Provence

barbue: brill (a flat fish, Scophthalmus rhombus)

barquette: pastry shell in the form of a boat, used in hors d'oeurvres and patisserie

basilic: basil, Ocimus basilicum

bâtarde: French bread, a little bigger than a baguette

bâtonnet: stick, a classic knife cut, from two to two-and-a half inches long, with a quarter-inch square cross-section, like a French fry (also baton); also a French bread, a little smaller than a baguette

batterie de cuisine: the complete range of tools used in a French kitchen: pots, pans, knives, bowls, etc.

bavette: minute steak; the top or skirt of beef

baveux: moist, runny

Beaufort: cow's milk Gruyére cheese from Savoie

bécasse: woodcock, Scolopax rusticola

becassine: snipe, Gallinago gallinago

beignet: fried dough, a fritter

Bercy: butter flavored with lemon, marrow, parsley, salt, shallots, pepper and wine (also sauce Bercy, a velouté made with fish stock and shallots)

berlingot de Carpentras: candy

bette: beet (also betterave, beetroot; betterave rouge de Gardanne, a regional red beet; blette, white beet)

beurre: butter (e.g., beurre blanc, sauce made with reduced white wine and butter; beurre composé, compound butter; beurre manié, butter, worked together with flour, for used as a thickener by sauciers; beurre noir, browned butter, seasoned and used as a sauce; beurre rouge, sauce made with red wine and butter)

biche: female deer

bien cuit: cooked well done

bien fait: matured (applied to cheese, e.g., bien persillé, mature blue cheese)

bière: beer

bigarade: bitter orange (e.g., sauce bigarade, classic brown sauce flavored with bitter orange, usually served with duck)

bigarreau Pélissier: a regional cherry

billi-bi: soup made with mussels steamed in white wine, strained, enriched with cream and egg yolks; originally served without the mussels, but more commonly garnished with the unshelled mussels today

biscotin d'Aix: cookie

blanc: white; (e.g., blanc d'blancs: white wine made from white grapes; blanc de noirs: white wine made from red; blanc d'oeuf: egg white; fromage blanc, white cheese; vin blanc, white wine)

blanchaille: tiny fish, whitebait (like alevin or poutine, fry of any of a number of species)

blanchir: to blanch

blé: wheat; (e.g., germe de blé, wheat germ; blé noir, buckwheat)

bleu: blue cheese; (e.g., bleu d'Auvergne, blue cow's milk cheese from Auvergne; bleu de Bresse, blue cow's milk cheese created to compete with gorgonzola; bleu de Quercy, blue cheese from Aquitaine) ; also refers to meat cooked rare, but not a rare as saignant

blonde de Nice: a regional orange from Nice

blondir: to cook onions until transparent, without browning them

bocal: a deep narrow-topped bowl, made of glass or earthenware, used for canning preserves

boeuf: beef (e.g., boeuf Bourguinon, braised beef, marinated in pinot noir, and garnished with tiny boiled onions and small mushrooms)

boisson: beverage or drink

Bordelaise: sauce made with demi-glace, red wine, shallots, butter and peppercorns; garnished with marrow

boucher: butcher, part of Garde Manger, cuts meats, bones and poultry (also boucherie, butcher shop)

bouchon: a cork (e.g., bouchonné, corked--spoiled--wine)

boudin: a meat pudding, a forcemeat (e.g., boudin blanc, a light colored, and mildly-seasoned, sausage made of chicken or pork, often enriched with cream; boudin noir, a black pudding, sausage made of blood, often containing cereal products, such as rice or bread crumbs)

bouilli: boiled (e.g., bouillabaisse, a fish soup, traditionally from Marseilles); (bouillon, a broth, made from meat--as opposed to stock, which is made from bones; bourride, a fish soup like bouillabaisse, but more highly seasoned and thickened with egg yolk)

boulanger: baker (also boulangerie, bakery)

boule: a round loaf of bread, like a miche (also a scoop of ice cream)

bouquet garni: a small bunch of herbs, used to flavor sauces and stocks; often bay leaves, parsley and thyme--either tied together or in a sachet of cheesecloth, to make their removal easier (e.g., Bouquet de Marmite, a large bouquet made with leeks, celery and carrots, tied together and used in the marmite while making stocks

Bourguignonne: sauce made with demi-glace, burgundy wine, shallots, butter and peppercorns

Boursault: triple cream cheese with a white rind, similar to boursin

bouteille: bottle

braisé: braised

brassadeau: scalded ring cake

brasserie: casual French eating establishment

brebis: female sheep

Brie de Meaux: soft-ripened cow's milk cheese, from Ile de France

brioche: small bread made with butter-enriched yeast dough (e.g., brioche à tête, classic form for brioche, muffin-sized with a tapered fluted bottom)

brocoli: broccoli

brosme: cusk, Brosme brosme

brouillade: Provençal scrambled eggs

brousse du Rove: fresh goat cheese, made with milk from a breed of goat intended for meat

brousse du Var: fresh sheep-milk cheese from Var

broyé: crushed, ground or pounded

brûlé: burned, singed (e.g., créme brûlé, custard with a burned topping of caramelized sugar; brûlot, burnt brandy)

brunoise: fine dice

brut: very dry sparkling wine

büche de noël: Christmas cake in the form of a Yule log

bûcheron: soft mild goat cheese

Cabécou: tiny cheeses from Aquitaine or Languedoc, usually made with goat's milk, but sometimes with milk from cows or sheep

cabillaud: cod, Gadus morhua (e.g., morue, salt cod; brandade de morue, Provençal purèe of salt cod, flavored with garlic and olive oil

cacahouéte: peanut

cachat: strong goat or sheep cheese from Mount Ventoux, in Provence; sometimes kneaded with eau de vie, olive oil or wine--in which case it is known as fromage fort; (e.g., cacheille, cachat that has been mixed with cream and allowed to ferment)

cade: a kind of pancake from Nice-Toulon

cajou: cashew (also noix d'acajou)

calisson d'Aix: almond-paste candy

calmar: squid

camembert: soft-ripened cow's milk cheese from Normandy

canapé: cold hors d' oeuvre on a piece of toast, bread or cracker

canard: duck (also caneton, duckling)

cantal: pressed cheddar-like cheese made with uncooked cow's milk in Auvergne

capitainne: captain in French service

câpres: capers, Capparis spinosa

capucine: nasturtium, Tropaeolum majus

cardon: cardoon

carotte: carrot

carrelet: Plaice, a flat fish, Pleuronectes platessa

carte des mets: à la carte menu in French (also carte des vins, wine list)

carvi: caraway, Carum carvi

cassoulet: classic French dish of white beans, slowly cooked with an assortment of meats--such as sausage, pork, and duck or goose confit (also cassoulette, a small individual baking dish, like a ramekin)

caudiére: a seafood stew containing onions and mussels (also caudrée)

cébette: leek-like vegetable; shredded for salads or eaten raw in Provence

céleri: celery (also fougére musquèe); (also céleri bâtarde, lovage)

cerfeuil: chervil, Anthriscus cerefolium

cerise: cherry

champignon: mushroom (e.g., aux champignons, containing or garnished with mushrooms)

Chaource: Camembert-like cow's milk cheese from Champagne region

chapelure: bread crumbs

chapon de mer: fish used in bouillabaisse (also known as rascasse rouge), Scorpaena scrofa

chapon: capon (term also refers to a crust rubbed with garlic)

charcuterie: kitchen used for preparation of sausages, terrines, pâtés and smoked meats (also charcutiére, in the style of the butcher's wife, grilled meat with sauce Robert, garnished with julienne of cornichons)

Chartreuse: yellow or green herbal liqueur, often served as a digestif

chaud-froid: cooked, then chilled, meats--covered with aspic that is often elaborately decorated

chef de partie: in the Brigade system, the chef who is in charge of a station ( a line cook); (e.g., chef de rang, front waiter; chef de salle, head waiter; chef de vin, wine steward--sommelier)

chemisé: literally, a shirt, refers to foods (like chaud-froid) that are coated or wrapped (also en chemise)

chevreau de lait: baby goat

chichi-frégi: a beignet

chicorée frisée: chicory lettuce (endive frisée)

chiffonade: knife cut for herbs and vegetables, very fine narrow shreds

Choron: sauce made by coloring Hollandaise or Bèarnaise with pureed tomato

chou: cabbage (e.g., chou-blanc, white cabbage; choucroute, sauerkraut; chou de Bruxelles or chou-chou, brussels sprout; chou-fleur, cauliflower; chou-rouge, red cabbage; chou pointu de Châteaurenard, a regional cabbage)

choux: rough puff pastry

ciboule: scallion (ciboulette, chives)

cigale de mer: regional shellfish, something like a small spiny lobster, Scyllarides latus

citre: a regional watermelon, Citrullus lanatus, used for making jam

citron: lemon (e.g., citron de Menton, a regional lemon)

citrouille: pumpkin

clafouti: cobbler-like dessert from Limousin region

cloche: unglazed dome-shaped ceramic lid used in bread baking

clouter: to stud something with vegetables or cloves

coco rose: small white bean, marked with pink veins

cocotte: a tight-lidded casserole of glazed ceramic (e.g., en cocotte, a dish cooked in such a casserole)

coeur à la créme: molded, heart-shaped dessert of cream cheese, créme fraiche and whipped cream, usually served with fresh berries

coing de Provence: quince

colorer: to add an ingredient, or to pass over or through heat to color

commis: apprentice

compote: cooked fruits, in syrup

Comté: cow's milk Gruyére cheese from Franche-Comté

concassé: finely chopped or ground (typically peeled, seeded, and chopped tomato)

concombre: cucumber

confisseur: patissier who specializes in preparation of candies and fancy mignardise

confit: meats, such as duck, goose or pork, that has been preserved by being salted and slow-cooked in its own fat, then sealed under a layer of melted fat (e.g., confit de canard, preserved duck; confit d'oie, preserved goose)

confiture: fruit jam or preserve (e.g., confiture d'agrumes, citrus-fruit jam, marmalade; confiture de genièvre, preserve made of juniper-berries)

congre: conger eel, Conger conger (also known as fiélas)

consommé: completely clarified stock (double consommé is consommé that has been reduced to half its volume)

coq au vin: chicken, braised in red wine with salt pork or bacon, mushrooms and onions

coquille St. Jacques: scallops, served au gratin in their shells (coquille, the fluted shell of the scallop, or a dish of the same shape); (e.g., noix de coquille St. Jacques, the white muscle of the scallop)

cordon: a ribbon, a thin line of sauce surrounding a finished preparation

coriandre: coriander, Coriandrum sativum

cornet: horn-shaped pastry filled with whipped cream, or a similarly shaped slice of ham filled with cheese

cornichon: a very small, sweet, pickled cucumber, often served with pâté

cotriade: a fish and potato chowder from Normandy

coulis: a thick purèed sauce made from vegetables or sometimes fruit

Coulommiers: young cow's milk Brie cheese from Ile-de-France (also known as Peit Brie or Brie de Coulommiers)

couper: to carve or slice (e.g., couper à travers, slicing charcuterie or pâtés; couper en tranches, slicing meat)

courge: green squash (e.g., courgette, small zucchini; courgette farcie, stuffed zucchini)

court-bouillon: seasoned broth or stock used for poaching fish

couscoussiére: special pot used for steaming cous cous

couvert: individual set-up for one guest (a cover); (e.g., couverture, hard glossy chocolate used for covering high-quality candies)

craqueliln de Carpentras: Provençal candy

crème: cream (e.g., crème aigre, sour cream; crème Anglaise, vanilla-flavored custard sauce, similar to crème pâtissiére or pastry cream, but without flour; crème Chantilly, sweetened whipped cream; crème épaisse, thick cream; fleurette, light cream--also crème liquide; crème fraîche, thick, slightly ripened heavy cream; double-créme, cheese containing a minimum of 60% fat; triple-crème, cheese containing a minimum of 75% fat)

crémeux: soft cheese (such as St. Marcellin)

crêpe: a thin pancake (e.g., crêpes suzette, a flaming dessert of crêpes with a sauce of butter and Grand Marnier)

crépinette: a patty of sausage, often lamb, wrapped in lacy covering of caul fat

crevette: shrimp (e.g., crevette améthyste, small violet-marked shrimp, Periclimenes amethysteus; crevette commune, common shrimp, Palemon serratus; crevette èpineuse, coral shrimp, Stenopus spinosus)

croquant: brioche cake

croque monsieur: ham and cheese sandwich, dipped in beaten egg, then sauteed in butter (also croque madame, a croque monsieur with added fried egg)

crottin de Chavignol: well-aged dry goat cheese from Sancerre

croûte: crust, a container for food made of fried or toasted bread (or sometimes potato) (e.g., en croûte, describes baked items wrapped in pastry)

crudités: small cuts of fresh vegetables offered with a dip, generally served as a stationery hors d'oeuvre

cuillerée: spoonful

cuire au four: bake in the oven (also cuire au gras, to cook with fat; cuire au maigre, to cook without fat)

cuisson: poaching liquid

dariole: small round form for baking cylindrical desserts

darphin: shredded potatoes that have been formed into a flat round pancake and sauteèd in oil, then baked

daube: slow-cooked beef stew (also daubiére, a deep ceramic casserole use for preparing daube)

dauphine: puréed potatoes that have been mixed with choux batter, rolled into a ball and deep fried (e.g., Sole dauphine, deep-fried fillets, garnished with champignons, ecrivisses, truffes, and quenelles)

dauphinoise: thinly sliced potatoes typically layered with cream, butter, and cheese then baked. similar to the American scalloped potatoes

daurade royale: gilthead bream Sparus aurata

débarrasser: to clear off the table

décanter: to decant (also a wine carafe is used to separate the sediment from older wines and fortified wines)

découpage: to disjoint and portion; refers to poultry and flying game served via French service

dégustation: a tasting menu of wines and sometimes food, in which many dishes are offered in small portions

déjeuner: lunch (also petit déjeuner, breakfast)

délayer: to thin (as a sauce)

demi-glace: mixture of brown stock and reduced brown stock

demi-sec: half sweet, the term refers to a sweet sparkling wine

demitasse: half cup, a small cup used for espresso

dés: to dice (e.g., couper en gros dés, to dice; cut into chunks)

désosser: to bone (also desossage, deboning and filleting fish)

déssaler: to soak in water, to remove salt

détailler: to chop

digestif: a liqueur (often bitter with herbs), cordial or other high-alcohol drink served after a meal, supposedly as an aid to digestion

dinde: turkey (e.g., dinde, turkey hen; dindon, tom turkey; dindonneau, young turkey)

dorer: to gild, by brushing with a glaze of beaten egg before baking

doux: sweet, (champagnes labeled doux must contain a minimum of 5% sugar)

duchesse: pureéd potatoes that have been enriched with egg yolks and piped from pastry bag

duxelles: a savory paste of minced mushrooms, herbs and shallots, sweated in butter

eau: water (e.g., eau de fleur d'oranger, orange-flower water made with Bigaradier oranges of Provence; eau de vie, distilled alcoholic beverage made from fruit, such as poire William or Framboise)

ébullition: boiling

écailler: to shell crabs, or to scale fish

échalote: shallot

échauder: to scald

écrevisse: crayfish or crawfish (e.g., l'écrevisse noble, noble crawfish, Astacus fluviatilis; l'écrevisse à pied blanc, white-legged crayfish, Astacus pallipes; l'écrevisse à pied rouge, red-legged crayfish, Astacus astacus)

écumer: to froth or foam

égoutter: to drain liquid (for example, from fresh cheese)

émietter: to crumble

émincer: to mince

encornet: neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartrami

endive frisée: chicory lettuce (also known as chicorèe frisée)

enfourner: to put into the oven

entrecôte: between the ribs; a cut of meat from the front ribs and wing-end ribs --sized from petite to double; carved like chateaubriand when large

entremet: between courses; simple sweet course of fruits, puddings, mousses, pies, Bavarians, tarts, simple cakes, sherbet, sorbet, ice cream, or any combination of the above

entremetier: in the Brigade system, the chef who cooks vegetables, starches, and sometimes soups

épépiner: to remove seeds

épice: spice (e.g., épices fines, fine spices, blend also known as épice Parisienne; quatre épices, four spices, blend used in charcuterie)

épinard: spinach

éplucher: to peel (also épluchage, peeling and cutting fruits)

epoisses: washed-rind cow's milk cheese from Burgundy

équeuter: to remove a tail (for example, the stem of a fruit)

essence de truffe: a concentrated flavoring made from truffle peeling steeped in fortified wine

estragon: tarragon, Artemisia Dracunculus 'sativa'

estouffade: stew; (also a brown stock made with veal and beef bones plus pork knuckle)

étaler: to spread evenly

étendre au rouleau: to roll flat (as dough)

étuver: to stew slowly, tightly covered (also étouffé, a dish--often Cajun--cooked in this manner)

faisander: to hang or age game

fait-tout: stew-pan, cooking pot (also faitout, faittout, marmite)

farci: stuffed (e.g., légumes farcis, stuffed vegetables)

farine: flour (e.g., farine de sarrasin, buckwheat flour)

faux-filet: sirloin steak

favouille: small green crab found in the Mediterranean, Carcinus maenas

fenouil: fennel, Foeniculum vulgare

fermier: a farm house cheese

feuilletage: in flaky layers (also pâtè feuilletée, puff pastry)

féve: fava bean (also févette, large lentil)

ficelle: long, very slender loaf of bread

figue: fig (e.g., figue de Tarascon, regional variety)

filet/fillet: tenderloin steak, the choice undercut of meat or fish served off the bone (e.g., filet de dinde, turkey ; filet mignon, the small choice end of tenderloin of beef--or sometimes veal or pork)

flambé: dramatic tableside preparation in which brandy or liqueur is poured over a food item, then set aflame to complete the cooking

flet: flounder, Platichthys flesus (also flètan de l'Atlantique, Halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus)

fleur de courgette: zucchini blossom

fleur de muscade: mace (also called macis), Myristica fragrans

fleur de sel: sea salt from the Camargue, Guérande or Noirmoutier

fleuron: a tiny crescent of baked puff pastry, used as a garnish

foie: liver (e.g., foie gras, fattened liver of goose or duck)

fondre: to melt (also fondu, melted)

fouet: whisk

fougasse: a type of bread (e.g., fougassette, an enriched bread)

fougère musquée: celery

fouler: to press with a pestle

four: oven

fourme d'Ambert: Stilton-like cow's milk cheese from Auvergne

fourré: filled, stuffed or creamed

fraise: strawberry (e.g., fraise de Carpentras or frais du Plan de Carros; fraise du bois, wild strawberry)

friandises: a little something extra, served after dessert--similar to mignardises

fricassée: stewed poultry or white meats, with a white sauce

frites: deep-fried battonets of potato (French fries); (also friturier, fry station or the cook who works there)

froid: cold

fromage: cheese (e.g., fromage blanc, a soft white cheese like a thick yogurt; fromage de brebis, ewe's cheese, such as Roquefort; fromage de chévre, goat cheese; fromage de vache, cow milk cheese; fromage frais, soft white cheese; fromage rapè, grated cheese)

fruit confit d'Apt: candied fruit

fruits de mer: an assortment of seafoods

fumet: cooking liquid for fish, made with white wine and aromatics

galantine: boned, stuffed, rolled, tied and poached meat served cold

galette: a round, flat cake or tart

ganache: mixture of chocolate and heavy cream, used as a glaze or as base for truffles

garbure: a thick vegetable soup containing cabbage and potatoes

garde manger: the cold area of a kitchen where buffet items are prepared and stored, also refers to the items themselves; in the Brigade system, the chef who prepares cold foods, pâtés, also the category of such foods

gastrique: a reduced syrup of vinegar and caramelized sugar

gâteau: cake

gaufrette: potatoes, thinly sliced with a lattice cut on a mandoline, then deep fried

genièvre: juniper or gin (also genèvrier)

génoise: sponge cake

géranium odorant: rose geranium

germe de blé: wheat germ

germon: albacore, Thunnus alalunga

gibier: wild game

gigot: leg of lamb or mutton, usually roasted

girofle: clove, Eugenia caryophyllata

girolle: chanterelle mushroom, Cantharellus cibarius (also trompette de la mort, black chanterelle or black trumpet, Craterellus cornucopioides)

glacé: glazed or iced, refers to items covered in sugar, or frozen (e.g., glace, ice cream; also glace de viande, meat stock reduced to a syrup-like consistency)

gougère: hors d'oeuvre of baked choux pastry, flavored with Gruyére

goujonette: a battered and deep-fried strip of fish filet

gousse: clove (of garlic); or pod (of a bean or pea)

goûter: to taste (hence goût, taste)

grain: seed (such as grape or mustard); or a coffee bean (also graine, a plant seed)

granité: a sweet ice with no fat or egg

gratin: a baked dish, often topped with cheese and/or bread crumbs, then browned under a salamander or broiler (also gratinée, French onion soup, topped with a crouton and cheese, and browned under a salamander or broiler)

grenade: pomegranate, Punica granatum (also grenade de Provence, a regional variety)

grillade: grilled (also grillardin, the grill station, or the chef who prepares grilled items)

grillettes: garnish of crisply fried bits of rich meat, such as duck or pork

griofle: gurnard (also grondin and galinette); (e.g., grondin gris, gray gurnard, Eutrigla gurnardus; grondin perlon, red gurnard, Trigla lucerna)

guéridon: a rolling service cart

hareng: herring, Clupea harengus

haricot: bean (e.g., haricot blanc, white bean; haricot coco rose d'Eyragues, small local bean--also coco rose; haricot rouge, kidney bean; haricot vert, green bean)

herbes: herbs (e.g., Herbes de Provence, a blend of marjoram, oregano, rosemary and summer savory; sometimes includes basil, fennel, sage, thyme and/or lavender)

Hollandaise: emulsion-type sauce prepared with egg yolks, peppercorns, lemon juice, vinegar and butter

homard: lobster, Homarus gammarus

hors d'oeuvres: outside the work; traditionally a warm appetizer, but often includes any tidbit served before the meal

huile: oil (e.g., huile d'olive, olive oil)

île flottante: floating island, sometimes refers to a dessert better known as oeufs à la neige, but also to an island of Genoise, flavored with liqueur, garnished with crème chantilly and nuts, floating in a lake of crème Anglaise

jambon: ham (also jambonneau, knuckle of ham)

jardinière: a mixture of vegetables

jaune d'oeuf: egg yolk

julienne: very thin strips of food of varying lengths, one-eighth-inch in cross-section; fine julienne are one-sixteenth-inch in cross section

jus: juice from roasting (e.g., au jus, meat, and sometimes fish, served with its own juices; jus liè, thickened jus)

kaki muscat de Provence: persimmon

lagniappe: a little something extra; a Cajun term, referring to a small complimentary treat

lait: milk (e.g., lait cru, un-pasteurized milk; lait de noix de coco, coconut milk)

laitue: lettuce

langouste: spiny lobster, Panulirus spp. (also langoustine, prawn, Palinurus vulgaris)

langres: small brownish-orange cow's milk cheese, washed with brine and annatto; made in Champagne

langues du chat: cat's tongues, a thin oblong cookie, three inches in length, with a faint citrus scent

larder: to lard with strips of larding bacon, to enrich a piece of lean meat (also lardons, blanched strips of fried salt pork or bacon, similar to grillettes)

laurier: bay or laurel leaf, Laurus nobile

lavande: lavender (lavandin, hybrid lavender grown in Provence), Lavandula x intermedia

légume: vegetable in French cookery; in English, the term refers to member of the bean family

légumier: in the Brigade system, the chef who prepares vegetables for cooking and cooks vegetables

levain: leaven (or the leavener in bread)

levure: yeast (e.g., levure chimique, baking powder; levure de boulanger, baker's yeast)

liaison: a binder or thickener for sauces and soups--usually starch-based, but sometimes containing egg yolks, cream, blood or vegetable purèe (also liè, to lightly thicken)

liche: pompano, Trachinotus ovatus

liège: cork (the material, not a bottle stopper)

lieu jaune: pollock, Pollachius pollachius

limande-sole: lemon dab, a flat fish, Microstomus kitt; (also limande commune, common dab, Limanda limanda)

livarot: brown washed-rind cow's milk cheese from Normandy

lotte de mer: monkfish (also baudroie), Lophius pescatorius

louche: ladle

loup: sea bass (also known as bar commun, corvine and loubine), Dicentrarchus labrax

macédoine: mixed fresh fruits in liqueur-flavored syrup

madeleine: small cookie-like cake, shaped like a scallop shell

madère: a Madiera-enhanced sauce Espagnole

maïs: corn, maize

maître d': short for maître d' hôtel, literally, master of the house; the person in charge of the dining room; (e.g., maître d' butter or maître d' hôtel butter, compound butter flavored with salt, pepper and parsley, plus vinegar or lemon)

malaxer, pétrir: to knead dough, or to work butter

mange-tout: eat-it-all, a tiny fish (also pois mange-tout, eat-it-all peas, small tender young pea pods)

maquereau: mackerel, Scomber scombrus

marbré: marbled (also persillée in describing blue cheese)

marjolaine: sweet marjoram, Origanum majorana

marmite: ceramic cooking pot (e.g., petite marmite, small marmite-shaped pot used as a soup bowl; also a simmered dish, like a pot-au-feu)

Maroilles: strong flavored washed-rind cow's milk cheese from Flanders

marron: chestnut (e.g., marrons glacés, chestnuts in heavy syrup)

matelote: a fish stew containing eel

matignon: a kind of mire poix, containing carrot, celery and onion, plus leek, bacon or ham and sometimes mushrooms

mélisse: lemon balm, Melissa officinalis

melon: cantaloupe

menthe: mint, Mentha spp.

merlan: whiting (also merlan bleu, blue whiting, Micromesistius poutassou), Merlangius merlangus

merlu: hake, Merluccius merluccius

mérou: grouper, Epinephelus marginatus

mesclun Niçois: mixture of different baby lettuces

miche: a round loaf of bread, formed in a basket

mie: the white part of the bread, minus the crust (e.g., mie de pain, white bread crumbs)

miel: honey

mignardises: the sweetest of the sweets, served with coffee including; truffles, chocolates, caramels, dipped fruits and nuts, macaroons, mints, small cookies or pastries

mignonette: another name for medallion or noisette--a disk-shaped cut of lamb (also poivre mignonette, crushed white pepper)

mille-feuille: thousand layers; a filled dessert made with two sheets of puff pastry

mirepoix: aromatic mixture of diced vegetables; classically, two parts onion to one part each of carrot and celery (Cajun mirepoix substitutes green pepper for the carrots, white mirepoix substitutes leek for the carrot)

mise en place: to put everything in its place; a set-up of required items or ingredients

mitonner: to simmer; cook slowly, or prepare very carefully (also mijoter)

moelle: bone marrow

monter: to mount, or to aerate by whisking (e.g., monté au beurre, enriching a sauce by whisking in cold butter at the last minute)

morbier: pale yellow cow's milk cheese from the Jura Mountains; curd from morning and evening milkings are separated by a thin layer of ash

Mornay: Bechamel sauce enriched with egg yolks, Parmesan, and Gruyére

mortier: mortar (heavy bowl for grinding with a pestle)

mouiller: to cover with liquid, stock, wine, etc., or to add a specific amount of liquid as directed in the recipe.

moulé: molded

moules: mussels (e.g., moules mariniéres, mussels cooked in white wine with onion or shallots), Mytilus galloprovincialis

moulin à poivre: pepper mill

mousse: foam, airy sweet or savory foods (also mousseline, sauce or light forcemeat that is lightened through the addition of whipped cream or beaten egg whites)

moutarde: mustard

mouton: mutton

muge: mullet, Mugil cephalus

munster: rich yellow cow's milk cheese from Alsace

mûr: ripe

mûre: blackberry (also mûrier noir, fresh blackberry)

muscade: nutmeg, Myristica fragrans

napper: to coat or cover (also nappé, tablecloth, or the description of a food item covered with sauce; napperon, top cloth)

navarin: a lamb or mutton stew

navet: turnip

navette: a boat-shaped cookie from Marseille and Provençal

nèfle du Japon: medlar fruit, Eriobotrya japonica

neige: frost, (e.g., battre en neige, to beat egg whites stiffly to a frosty consistency)

noisette: hazelnut (also a small tender disk cut from the loin or rib of beef, lamb of veal; beurre noisette, browned butter; pommes noisette, tournèed potatoes, browned in butter)

noix: nut, specifically walnut (also noix de coco, coconut; noix de coquilles Saint-Jacques, the white flesh of the scallop; noix de muscade, nutmeg)

nonpareil: unparalleled, without equal, in the U.S., a sprinkle-covered chocolate candy--but in France, the smallest and most perfect capers.

nougat blanc: white nougat candy (also nougat noir, dark nougat candy)

nouille: noodle

nourriture: food

oeuf: egg (e.g., oeufs brouillés, scrambled eggs; oeuf à cheval, steak or hamburger topped with a fried egg; oeuf à la coque, egg, boiled, or steak or hamburger topped with a fried egg; oeuf à la moelle, poached egg, with sauce made with white-wine and bone marrow; oeufs à la neige, a dessert of beaten egg whites poached in milk, served with a caramelized vanilla sauce; oeuf dur, hard-boiled egg; oeuf dur le plat, fried egg; oeuf pochè, poached egg)

oie: goose

oignon: onion

ombre commun: freshwater grayling, Thymallus thymallus

oreillette: a sweet fritter

orge: barley

origan: oregano, Origanum vulgare

ortie: nettle, a wild potherb, Urtica dioca

oseille: sorrel, Rumex acetosa

oursin violet: sea-urchin, Paracentrotus lividus

paillard: thinly sliced veal or beef for sautèing--a scallop or schnitzel

pain: bread (e.g., pain bouilli, a regional rye bread; pain d'Aix, a regional raised bread; pain de mais, corn bread; pain de seigle, rye bread; pain perdu, French toast)

pamplemousse: grapefruit

panade: starch-based thickener used with forcemeats, or a soup thickened with a panade

panisse: fried chick-pea flour beigne

papillote: paper decoration for ends of ribs on a roast (e.g., en papillote, cooked in a parchment package)

parfum: flavor (usually applied to ice cream)

parmentier: refers to containing, or garnished with, potatoes

passoire: colander (e.g., une passoire conique, china cap or chinoise)

pastèque: watermelon

pâte: paste, dough used for baking, or the interior of cheese (e.g., pâte à choux, rough puff pastry, like that used for cream puffs; pâte brisèe, short pastry, pie dough; pâte feuilletèe, puff pastry; pâte cuite/dure, hard cheese; pâte molle, soft cheese; pâte sucrèe, sweetened pâte brisèe, often enriched with egg; pâte verte, green pasta; pâtisserie, pastry, a pastry shop, or the art of making pastry; pâtissier, a pastry chef)

pâté: mixture of ground meats formed in a terrine and sliced

patience: a Provençal cookie

pavé: thick prime steak, grilled; or a dessert shaped like a paving stone; or a cold dish, in the form of a square, covered with aspic

pêche : peach (e.g., pêche Melba, dessert of cold poached peaches, vanilla ice cream and raspberry sauce; pêche sanguine de Manosque, red-violet variety of blood peach from Alpes-de-Haute-Provence)

Pelardon: small goat cheese from Auvergne and Languedoc

peler: to peel

Périgourdine: demi-glace with foie gras purée; garnished with truffles

persil: parsley (also persillade, minced garlic and parsley; persillée, marbled green- or blue-veined cheese, so-called because of its resemblance to a garnish of minced parsley), Petroselinum crispum

petit épeautre: a regional wheat

petit gris: small edible snail, Helix aspersa aspersa

petit pan: roll

petit salé: salt pork

petite friture: any small items (tiny fish, shrimp, vegetables, squid rings, etc.), lightly battered and quickly fried

petits fours: small, square, glazed and decorated form of mignardise

pétrir, malaxer: to knead (as dough); (also pétrissage, kneading)

pieds et paquets: sheep tripe

pignon: pine nut

piler: to grind, crush (in a mortar)

pilon: drumstick, or poultry leg (term also refers to a pestle: the short thick grinding tool used with a mortar)

piment: red hot pepper, Capsicum annuum

pince: browning in fat, typically of tomato product in the making of brown stock

pintade: Guinea fowl (e.g., pintade farcie, stuffed Guinea fowl), Numida meleagris

pipérades: Basque-influenced dishes, containing green peppers and tomatoes, cooked in olive oil

pissaladiére: Provençal onion, olive and anchovy tarte

pissenlit: dandelion, Taraxacum officinale

pistache: pistachio

pistou: a Provençal garlic-basil sauce, simlar to pesto (sometimes used for basil itself)

plat: dish, plate (also plateau, platter)

pleurotte: oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus

poche: poach (also pocket or bag)

poire: pear (e.g., poire crémesine et martin-sec, a regional pear; poire Hèléne, vanilla-flavored poached pear, served with ice cream and chocolate sauce; poire William, pear eau de vie)

poireau: leek

pois: pea (e.g., petits pois, tiny peas; pois chiche, chick pea)

poisson: fish (also poissonier, chef responsible for fish dishes/appetizers)

poivre: pepper (e.g., sauce poivrade, demi-glace with pepper, mirepoix, herbs, red wine, and butter), Piper nigrum

poivron: bell pepper (e.g., poivron farci, stuffed pepper; poivron pimentè, chile pepper; poivron rouge, red bell pepper; poivron vert, green bell pepper)

polenta jaune: boiled cornmeal

pomme: apple (e.g., pomme de risoul et pointue de Trescléoux, a regional apple; pomme de terre, potato; pommes Anna, French version of rösti potatoes; pommes de terre de Pertuis, mid-season potatoes)

pompe à l'huile: an enriched bread

pompe de Noël: an enriched holiday bread

pont-l'Evêque: soft-ripened cow's milk cheese from Normandy

potager: in the Brigade system, the chef who prepares soup

pot-au-feu: boiled meat and vegetable dish

potiron: pumpkin (also potimarron, pumpkin variant, with slight chestnut flavor)

poulpe: octopus

pourriture noble: noble rot, mold responsible for the honey-like quality of dessert wines such as Sauternes, Botryis cinerea

pousse-café: cordial or brandy served with coffee

poussin: young hen

poutargue de Martigues: fish eggs

poutine: alevin, fry, young fish

praline: an almond-sugar mixture used as a filling in some pastries and candies; not the same as the American or Belgian pralines

printanier: a garnish of spring vegetables

prix fixe: a form of menu that offers a set, or limited, selection for a set price

Provençale: sauce consisting of shallots, garlic, white wine, tomato concassé, fines herbs, and butter

purée: smoothly ground or mashed food, often strained; the process of making a purée

quadrillage: a lattice-like top on a tart (with strips of pastry) or pizza (with anchovies)

quart: quarter (e.g., un quart de vin, a carafe with 25 cl of wine; quartier, a segment or quarter of orange, lemon, melon, etc.)

quatre-épices: a blend of ground cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, pepper

quenelle: a light dumpling of fine forcemeat (generally, seafood, chicken or vegetables), used as a course in themselves, or as garnishes for other dishes

queue: tail

quiche: a savory tarte

ragoût: stew

raisin: grape (e.g., raisin sec, raisin)

ramollir: to soften

rascasse: hog-fish (fish used in bouillabaisse); (rascasse rouge, red scorpion fish, also known as chapon de mer), Scorpaena scrofa

ratatouille: a Provençal vegetable stew

ravioli: stuffed pasta

réchaud: hot plate, food warmer, cooking utensil used mostly for gueridon service

redresser: to plate and garnish dishes with food taken from pans, platters or bowls

rafraichir: to shock blanched food in ice-cold water

relevés: a form of appetizer--highly seasoned dishes that stimulate the appetite for the entrée

remouillage: rewetting; a secondary stock made from bones that have already been used to made stock

rémoulade: sauce consisting of Mayonnaise, capers, Dijon mustard, anchovies, and gherkins

restaurateur: owner or operator of a restaurant

revenir: to brown or soften

rillettes: a kind of potted meat, similar to pâté--but preserved with a layer of fat, like confit

rince-doigts: finger bowl

ris: sweetbreads (e.g., ris d'agneau, lamb sweetbreads; ris de veau, calf sweetbreads)

rissole: to brown, in fat, in a pan (e.g., rissole potatoes)

riz de Camargue: rice from the Camargue (southern Provence)

rocambole: Spanish garlic

rognon: kidney

romarin: rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis

roquefort: blue sheep's milk cheese from Combalou (Auvergne)

roquette: arugala, Eruca sativa

rôtir: to roast (also rôti, a roast or roasted item)

rôtisseur: in the Brigade system, the chef who prepares roast meats and poultry

rouget de roche: red mullet, Mullus surmuletus

rouille: garnish for Provençal dishes like Bouillabaisse, a paste of pounded garlic, hot red pepper and olive oil, thickened with breadcrumbs

roulade: a rolled and filled slice of meat, usually braised in stock or wine

roussir: to brown, singe

roux: slow-cooked mixture of fat and flour, used as a thickener for sauces, soups and stews (e.g., blonde roux, made with butter and cooked until golden; brown roux, made with butter of meat fat and cooked until golden brown; dark roux, made with lard and cooked until chestnut brown, used in Cajun cooking; white roux, made with butter and cooked only until flour loses its raw color)

sablé: shortbread cookie from Normandy

safran: saffron, Crocus sativus

saignant: cooked very rare

Saint André: triple cream cheese with white rind

Sainte-Germain: refers to dishes made, or garnished, with fresh green peas, either whole or purèed

Sainte-Maure: soft goat cheese from Touraine

Saint-Honoré: an airy version of créme patissiére, containing whipped cream or egg whites (e.g., gateau Saint-Honoré, a classic dessert consisting of caramel-coated cream puffs arranged in a ring on a base of pâte brisée, then filled with crème Saint-Honoré)

Saint-Marcellin: semi-hard cow's milk cheese from Lyon (originally made with goat's milk)

Saint-Nectaire: cow's milk cheese from Auvergne

Saint-Paulin: lightly pressed cow's milk cheese from Entrammes, in Normandy (also known by the commercial names, Port-Salut or port-du-Salut)

Saint-Pierre: John Dory, a flat fish, Zeus faber

salade: salad (e.g., salade composèe, a composed salad; salade de mesclun, a salad of lettuce, dandelion, chicory, watercress, herbs and rocket; salade niçoise, a salad of lettuce, tomatoes, olives, anchovies, tuna fish, bell peppers, hard-boiled eggs, potatoes, etc.)

salé: salted

salmis: ragoût of minced game, slowly cooked in wine

salpicon: cooked diced foods bound with a sauce, such as Béchamel or syrup or cream, and used as filling for hors d'oeurvres or other dishes

sard: sardine, Clupea sprattus, Sardina pilchardus or other small herring-like fishes

sarrasin: buckwheat

sarriette: savory (also sarriette des montagnes, winter savory, Satureja montana), Satureja hortensis

sauce Bèchamel: classic white sauce made with milk, flavored with onions and cloves, thickened with white roux (e.g., sauce Mornay, sauce Bèchamel enriched with Gruyére or Parmesan cheese, and sometimes stock and/or cream and yolks of eggs; sauce Soubise, sauce Bèchamel with puréed cooked onions)

sauce Espagnole: classic starch-thickened sauce made with brown stock, brown roux, herbs and tomato purèe (e.g., sauce Périgueux, sauce Espagnole with truffles and Madiera)

sauce Hollandaise: classic emulsion sauce made with butter, egg yolk and lemon juice (also sauce Béarnaise, Hollandaise with shallots, tarragon, wine and vinegar; sauce Maltaise, orange-flavored Hollandaise)

sauce marchands de vin: sauce for roasted meats, made with glace de viande, shallots, reduced red wine and black pepper, with butter, lemon and parsley

sauce Marguery: emulsion sauce made with a reduction of fish stock and white wine, thickened with butter and egg yolk

sauce Mayonnaise: classic emulsion sauce made with oil, lemon juice and egg yolk, and a tiny amount of mustard (also sauce verte, sauce Mayonnaise colored with a purée of blanched parsley, spinach or watercress)

sauce Robert: classic sauce made with demi glace, white wine and mustard; traditionally served with game

saucier: in the Brigade system, the person responsible for soups, stocks and sauces

saucisson: sausage, usually refers to a large smoked sausage (e.g., saucisse, small sausage; saucisse aux herbes ou au chou, fresh sausage made with meats, vegetables and herbs; saucisson d'Arles, regional dry sausage)

sauge: sage, Salvia officinale

saumuré: pickled

sauter: to cook quickly in a small amount of fat (also sauteuse, a slope-sided shallow sauté pan; sautoir, a straight-sided shallow sauté pan)

savarin: a ring-shaped dessert made of rum-soaked cake, filled with créme chantilly or fruit

saveur: flavor

scarole: endive

sec: dry (referring to goat cheese), or sweet (referring to wine)

seiche: squid, cuttle-fish, any member of the Illex, Loligo, or Sagittatus genera

sel: salt (e.g., gros sel, coarse salt; sel de céleri, celery salt; sel de marin, sea salt; sel et poivre, salt and pepper)

semence: seed

serpolet: wild thyme, Thymus serpyllum

serviette: napkin

singer: to dust an item with flour

socca: pancake made with chick-pea-flour (e.g., Socca de Nice, regional variation)

soigné: French term for service--literally caring or excellent

sole commune: common sole, Solea solea

sorbet: sherbert, frozen fruit juice or tea with sugar, an ice made without fat or egg yolk

soufflé: a light airy dish that is leavened by beaten egg whites (e.g., pommes soufflés, thin slices of potato, fried twice so that trapped steam inflates them)

soufre: sulfur

soupe: soup

sous chef: in the Brigade system, the chef who is second in command

spigol: a blend of spices, including--and similar in use to--safran

suce-miel d'Allauch: honey paste, caramelized sugar and oil

sucre: sugar

suprême: a chicken breast with skin and first joint of wing attached, or a segment of citrus fruit with membranes and seeds removed (also sauce suprême, sauce Veloutè enriched with stock, butter and cream, flavored with mushrooms)

table d'hôte: pre-set multi-course menu offered at a set price

tamis: sieve

tapenade: Provençal condiment made from anchovies, black olives, capers, lemon juice and olive oil pounded into a paste

tarte: pie (e.g., tarte tatin, an upside-down tart of caramelized apples or pears)

tartine: buttered bread

taureau de Camargue: beef from the Camargue (at the mouth of the Rhône)

telline: small, wedge-shaped clam (also known as haricot de mer), Donax denticulatas

terrine: glazed earthenware baking dish, usually deep and rectangular or oval in shape (also food cooked in such a dish)

thé: tea

thon: tuna (thon rouge, red tuna), Thunnus spp.

thym: thyme, Thymus vulgaris

tian: shallow ceramic baking vessel, or a dish prepared gratinée in a tian

timbale: various foodstuffs, bound with a sauce--such as Bèchamel--or egg or custard, and baked in a mold in the form of a tapered drum

tisane: an infusion, herbal or floral tea

tomate: tomato (e.g., tomate farci, stuffed tomato)

tomme: molded raw cheese (e.g., tomme d'Arles; tomme de Savoie, pressed cow's milk cheese from Savoie)

Toulouse: coarse garlic sausage

tourage: folding technique used to produce the layers in puff pastry

tournant: in the Brigade system, the chef who relieves people at various stations

tournedo: thick cross-section of beef tenderloin

tournèe: turned uniformly sized peeled and carved potatoes or vegetables--usually oblong

tourte: pie, covered (e.g., tourton, vegetable pie, without pastry)

travallier: to work or knead

tronçonner: to cut into sections or lengths

trou Normande: used, like sorbet, as an intermezzo; a traditional trou normande was a bottle of Calvados (from Normandy) encased in a small block of ice

truffe: truffle (e.g., truffe noire d'hiver, winter black truffle), Tuber melanosporum

truite: trout (usually Brown Trout, Salmo trutta)

tuile: a thin crisp cookie that is formed, while still hot, into a slightly curved shape (also tulipe, similar to a tuile, but shaped like a flower by gathering the sides and allowing it to cool in a cup)

unilatéral: one-sided (e.g., saumon à l'unilatéral, salmon grilled only on one side)

usé: worn, red wine that has faded in quality because of age

vacherin: a cake formed of rings of baked meringue or almond paste, filled with créme chantilly, ice cream and/or fruit

vanner: to stir sauces to avoid the formation of a skin

vapeur: steam

veau: veal

vermicelles: vermicelli

Véronique: applied to dishes containing, or garnished with, white grapes

verveine: vervain, lemon verbena, Aloysia triphylla

viande: meat (e.g., viande en dés, meat chunks)

vierge: virgin (e.g., huile d'olive vierge, pure cold-pressed olive oil)

vieux: old, aged

vin: wine

vinaigre: vinegar (also vinaigrette, an oil and vinegar emulsion)

violet: sea-squirt, a barnacle-like shellfish (also oursin violet, sea-urchin, Paracentrotus lividus), Microcosmus sulcatus

violette de Tourette: candied flower

vol-au-vent: a puff pastry shell, in the form of a cooking pot, containing a mixture of foods in a cream sauce

yaourt: yogurt

zeste: fragrant peel of lemon or orange

Latest page update: made by perioan , May 2 2007, 5:46 AM EDT (about this update About This Update perioan Edited by perioan

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